Forensic DNA Applications: An Interdisciplinary Perspective was developed as an outgrowth of a conference held by the International Society of Applied Biological Sciences. The topic was human genome-based applications in forensic science, anthropology, and individualized medicine. Assembling the contributions of contributors from numerous regions around the world, this volume is designed as both a textbook for forensic molecular biology students and a reference for practitioners and those in the legal system. The book begins with the history and development of DNA typing and profiling for criminal and civil purposes. It discusses the statistical interpretation of results with case examples, mitochondrial DNA testing, Y single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and short tandem repeats (STRs), and X SNP and STR testing. It also explores low copy number DNA typing, mixtures, and quality assurance and control. The second section examines the collection and preservation of biological evidence under a variety of different circumstances and the identification of human remains-including in mass disaster settings.
It discusses applications to bioterrorism investigations, animal DNA testing in criminal cases, pedigree questions and wildlife forensic problems, applications in forensic entomology, and forensic botany. The third section explores recent developments and new technologies, including the rigorous identification of tissue of origin, mtDNA profiling using immobilized probe strips, chips and next-generation sequencing, the use of SNPs to ascertain phenotypic characteristics, and the "molecular autopsy" that looks at aspects of toxicogenetics and pharmacogenetics. The book concludes with a discussion on law, ethics, and policy. It examines the use of DNA evidence in the criminal justice system in both the United States and Europe, ethical issues in forensic laboratory practices, familial searches, DNA databases, ancestry searches, physical phenotyping, and report writing. The contributors also examine DNA applications in immigration and human trafficking cases and international perspectives on DNA databases.
General Background and Methodological Concepts Basic Genetics and Human Genetic Variation; Dragan Primorac, Moses S. Schanfield, and Damir Marjanovic Forensic DNA Analysis and Statistics; Moses S. Schanfield, Dragan Primorac, and Damir Marjanovic Forensic Aspects of mtDNA Analysis; Mitchell M. Holland and Gordan Lauc Y Chromosome in Forensic Science; Manfred Kayser and Kaye N. Ballantyne Forensic Application of X Chromosome STR s and SNPs; Toni Marie Diegoli Low Copy Number DNA Profiling; Theresa Caragine, Krista Currie, and Craig O'Connor Forensic DNA Mixtures, Approaches, and Analysis; Theresa Caragine, Adele Mitchell, and Craig O'Connor Forensic DNA Typing and Quality Assurance; Daniel Vanek and Katja Drobnic Uses and Applications Collection and Preservation of Physical Evidence; Henry Lee, Timothy Palmbach, Dragan Primorac, and Simun Andelinovic Identification of Missing Persons and Mass Disaster Victim Identification by DNA; Barbara A. Butcher, Frederick R. Bieber, Zoran M. Budimlija, Sheila M. Dennis, and Mark A. Desire Bioterrorism and Forensic Microbiology; Alemka Markotic, James W. LeDuc, and Jenifer Smith Forensic Animal DN A Analysis; Marilyn A. Menotti-Raymond, Victor A. David, Stephen J. O'Brien, Sree Kanthaswamy, Petar Projic, Vedrana Skaro, Gordan Lauc, and Adrian Linacre Application of DN A- Based Methods in Forensic Entomology; Jeffrey D. Wells and Vedrana Skaro Forensic Botany: Plants as Evidence in Criminal Cases and as Agents of Bioterrorism; Heather Miller Coyle, Henry C. Lee, and Timothy M. Palmbach Recent Developments and Future Directions in Human Forensic Molecular Biology Forensic Tissue Identification with Nucleic Acids; Dmitry Zubakov and Manfred Kayser Evolving Technologies in Forensic DNA Analysis; Cassandra D. Calloway and Henry Erlich Prediction of Physical Characteristics, such as Eye, Hair, and Skin Color Based Solely on DNA; Elisa Wurmbach Molecular Autopsy; Grace Axler-DiPerte, Frederick R. Bieber, Zoran Budimlija, Antii Sajantila, Donald Siegel, and Yingying Tang Genetic Genealogy in Genomic Era; Jake Byrnes, Natalie M. Myres, and Peter A. Underhill Law, Ethics, and Policy DNA as Evidence in the Courtroom; David H. Kaye, Frederick R. Bieber, and Damir Primorac Some Ethical Issues in Forensic Genetics; Erin D. Williams and David H. Kaye DNA in Immigration and Human Trafficking; Sara Huston Katsanis and Joyce Kim DNA Databanking; Chris Asplen Index