Human motion analysis or gait analysis is used throughout the country and the world in clinics for pre-surgical planning and postsurgical follow-up. Only recently have technological advances truly begun to meet medical needs by supplying more accurate analytical data from which to make educated assessments of dynamic foot and ankle pathology. A comprehensive overview of current and emerging methods is necessary for practitioners to effectively integrate the new techniques into better pre-treatment planning, surgical and rehabilitative care, and post-treatment follow-up. Originating as a one-day workshop sponsored by the Shriner's Hospitals and the National Institutes of Health, "Foot and Ankle Motion Analysis: Clinical Treatment and Technology" provides a single source reference for the latest technologies and their clinical applications. With contributions from an international panel of experts from orthopaedic, rehabilitation, engineering, academic, medical-industrial, and clinical disciplines, this text focuses on the relevant scientific advances with an emphasis on applications, limitations, and problems to be solved.
Divided into two parts, the text begins by presenting basic and advanced clinical applications and opportunities in foot and ankle motion analysis in both pediatric and adult cases. The second part introduces the technological advances themselves from a quantitative perspective. Modeling concepts, seminal developments, and novel approaches are described along with emerging horizons related to mechanical paradigms, imaging, kinetics, robotics and simulation, tri-planar force sensing, and more. The book also includes a chapter of references and sources of support for future research and development prospects. Clinical and research applications in motion analysis have resulted in better functional assessment, fewer, more effective surgeries, and longer-term follow-up care. "Foot and Ankle Motion Analysis: Clinical Treatment and Technology" provides a basis for expanding these contributions to the broader community of practitioners caring for both adult and pediatric patients.
Foot and Ankle Motion Analysis: Evolutionary Perspectives and Introduction, G.F. Harris and M.D. Jenders Historical Perspective Introduction to the Text Part 1: Clinical Applications and Opportunities Section A Pediatric Foot and Ankle Clinical Applications of Foot and Ankle Motion Analysis in Children, P.A. Smith, S.Hassani, A.N. Graf, and G.F. Harris Gait Analysis Foot Motion Biomechanical Models Normal Foot and Ankle Motion Clinical Challenges Cerebral Palsy Equinus Foot Deformities Planovalgus Foot Deformities Varus Foot Deformities Congenital Clubfoot Other Neuromuscular Foot Deformities Severe Flatfoot Tarsal Coalition Functional Gait Analysis in Children Following Clubfoot Releases, M.Khazzam, J.Y. Roh, J.T. Long, P.A. Smith, S.Hassani, G.F. Harris, A.N. Graf, and K.N. Kuo Congenital Clubfoot Pathoanatomy Etiology Clinical Assessment Radiographic Examination Treatment Options Gait Analysis for Assessment of Outcome Following Clubfoot Correction Results of Lower Body Gait Analysis Dynamic Plantar Pressure Characteristics and Clinical Applications in Patients with Residual Clubfoot, X.C. Liu and J.Thometz Three Dimensional MRI Modeling of Normal and Surgically Treated Clubfeet, V.Talwalkar, C.Tylkowski, C.Roche, B. Mattingly, P.A. Hardy, and D. Pienkowski Dynamic Foot Pressure in the Early Evolution of Foot Deformities in Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy, C. Church, N. Lennon, S. Coleman, J. Henley, M. Nagai, and F. Miller Plantar Pressure Based Quantitative Assessment of Subtalar Arthrodesis in the Rehabilitation of the Planovalgus Foot Deformity, Z.O. Abu-Faraj, G.F. Harris, and P.A. Seith Plantar Pressures: A Clinical Background Cerebral Palsy and the Planovalgus Foot Materials and Methods Chemodenervation and Motion Assessment, S. Sienko Thomas and J.D. Ackman Botulinum Toxin Type A Mouse Models of Spasticity Children with Cerebral Palsy Assessment of the Efficacy of Botulinum Toxin Type A Musculoskeletal Modeling Case Studies Equinovarus Foot: EMG Analysis and Clinical Outcome, M. Aiona, R. Dorociak, M. Nichols, and R. Pierce Normal Anatomy/Kinesiology of Foot and Ankle Equinovarus Foot Pathomechanics Clinical Implications of Equinovarus Foot EMG Assessment of Equinovarus Foot Study Study Population Methods Results Comparisons with Current Literature and Indications for Surgery Discussion Lower Extremity Characterization of Walker Assisted Gait in Children with Spastic Diplegic Cerebral Palsy, K.M. Baker, L. Lu, S.S. Klos, K. Reiners, J.D. Ackman, J. Klein, J.P. Schwab, and G.F. Harris Response to Balance Perturbation : A Strategy for Pediatric Assessment, A. Graf, J. Krzak, and G.F. Harris Section B Adult Foot and Ankle Gait Analysis in Posterior Tendon Dysfunction: Pre and Postoperative Analysis Compared to a Normal Population, R.M. Marks, J.T. Long, and G.F. Harris Posterior Tibial Tendon Anatomy and Biomechanics Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction Classification Treatment Options for PTTD Current Investigation of PTTD Gait Hallux Valgus: A Pre and Postoperative Analysis of Gait, A. Gottstein Frea, J. T. Long, M. Khazzam, R.M. Marks, and G.F. Harris Anatomy Pathoanatomy Clinical Presentation Treatment Previous Studies Tibia Hindfoot Forefoot Hallux Case Examples Hallux Rigidus: A Pre and Postoperative Analysis of Gait, J. Schwab, M.Khazzam, J.T. Long, R.M. Marks, and G.F. Harris Anatomy and Pathology Etiology Clinical Presentation and Evaluation Treatment Previous Motion Analysis Studies Case Examples Pre-Operative and Post-Operative Gait Analysis of the Rheumatoid Forefoot, K. Maskala, J.T. Long, R.M. Marks, and G.F. Harras Background and Significance Treatment Critical Studies Test Methods Results Discussion Foot and Ankle Motion Analysis of Patients with Ankle Arthritis, M. Khazzam, J.T. Long, R.M. Marks, and G.F. Harris Ankle Anatomy and Biomechanics Ankle Arthritis Clinical Assessment Treatment Conclusion Gait Analysis After Total Ankle Arthroplasty, J.W. Brodsky, F.E. Pollo, and B.S. Baum Materials and Methods Surgical Procedure Gait Analysis Gait Analysis Results Discussion Dynamic Poly-EMG in Gait Analysis for the Assessment of Equinovarus Foot, A. Esquenazi The Challenge of the Diabetic Foot, M.S. Pinzur The Problem and the Challenge The Normal Adult Foot Pathophysiology of Diabetic Foot Ulcers Prevention of Diabetic Foot Ulcers The Challenge of the Diabetic Foot The Biomechanics of the Diabetic Foot, W. Ledoux Etiology of Diabetic Neuropathic Ulceration The Effect of Diabetes on Soft Tissue Characteristics The Effect of Diabetes on the Kinematics and Kinetics of Gait The Effect of Diabetes on Foot Deformities The Relationship between Foot Structure and Plantar Pressure The Relationship between Foot Structure and Ulceration The Relationship between Plantar Pressure and Ulceration The Relationship between Shear Stress and Ulceration Three-Dimensional Finite Element Analysis of the Fifth Metatarsal Jones Fracture, E.S. Rohr, J.E. Johnson, L. Zhao, and G. F. Harris Part 2: Technical Developments and Emerging Opportunities Section C Foot and Ankle Modeling A System for the Analysis of Foot and Ankle Kinematics During Gait, S.M. Kidder, F.S. Abuzzahab, G.F. Harris, and J.E. Johnson Validation of a Multi-Segment Foot and Ankle Kinematic Model for Pediatric Gait, K.A. Myers, M. Wang, R.M. Marks, and G.F. Harris Measurement of Foot Kinematics and Plantar Pressure in Children Using the Oxford Foot Model, J. Stebbins, M. Harrington, T. Theologis, N.Thompson, C. Giacomozzi, and V. Macellari The Design, Development, and Initial Evaluation of a Multi-Segment Foot Model for Routine Clinical Gait Analysis, R.B. Davis, E.G. Jameson, J.R. Davids, L.M. Christopher, B.M. Rogozinski, and J.P. Anderson Foot Model / Analysis - Clinical Requirements Currently Available Multi-Segment Foot Models Shriners Hospitals for Children Greenville Foot Model Reliability of a Clinically Practical Multi-Segment Foot Marker Set / Model, J. Henley, J. Richards, D. Hudson, C. Church, S. Coleman, L . Kersetter, and F. Miller A Multi-Segment, 3D Kinematic Model of the Foot and Ankle, K.R. Kaufman, H.P. Kitaoka, D.K. Hansen, D.A. Morrow, and B.R. Kotajarvi A Spatial Linkage Model of the Ankle Complex, D. Marinkovich Multi-Segment Foot Biomechanics in Dynamic Hindfoot Varus, M.R. Walker, F.L. Buczek, K.M. Cooney, N.A. Sharkey, and J.O. Sanders Future Directions Section D Technical Advances in Foot and Ankle Motion Analysis The Accuracy and Utility of Virtual Markers, M.H. Schwartz and A. Rozumalski Accuracy Virtual Shapes Discussion Determination of Subject-Specific Ankle Joint Axes from Measured Foot Motion, S.J. Piazza and G.S. Lewis Optimization-Based Location of Two Axes "Subtalar Isolation" Method for Subtalar Joint Location Discussion Conclusion Dynamic Radiographic Measurement of 3D Skeletal Motion, J.D. Yamokoski and S.A. Banks State of the Art Application to the Ankle Joint System The Future of Dynamic Radiographic Measurements Exploring the Frontiers of in vivo Multi-Body Ankle Dynamics Using Fast-PC MRI, F.T. Sheehan, A.R. Seisler, and K.L. Siegel Kinetic Measures of the Foot: Overcoming Current Obstacles, B. MacWilliams Tri-Axial Plantar Force Sensor: Design, Calibration, Characterization, and Subject Testing, E.J. Miller, D.C. Jeutter, R.J. Stango, and G.F. Harris Quasi-Stiffness of the Ankle During Able-Bodied Walking at Different Speeds: Implications for Design of Prostheses, A.H. Hansen, S.A. Gard, and D.S. Childress Development of an Advanced Biofidelic Lower Extremity Prosthesis, M. White, B.J. Hafner, and W.J. Whatley Establishing Design Parameters Tension Band Design Robotic Technology in Gait Simulation and Foot Mechanics, J.C. Otis Methodology Dynamic Cadaver Modeling Robotic Technology Section E Research Support Support for Rehabilitation Research on Foot and Ankle Motion Analysis, L.A. Quatrano and H. Khan The National Institutes of Health (NIH) Discussion Index