Functional MRI (fMRI) and the basic method of BOLD imaging were introduced in 1993 by Seiji Ogawa. From very basic experiments, fMRI has evolved into a clinical application for daily routine brain imaging. There have been various improvements in both the imaging technique as such as well as in the statistical analysis. In this volume, experts in the field share their knowledge and point out possible technical barriers and problems explaining how to solve them. Starting from the very basics on the origin of the BOLD signal, the book covers technical issues, anatomical landmarks, presurgical applications, and special issues in various clinical fields including psychiatry and pediatrics. Other modalities for brain mapping such as PET, TMS, and MEG are also compared with fMRI. This book is intended to give a state-of-the-art overview and to serve as a reference and guide for clinical applications of fMRI.
Background. Neuroanatomy and landmarks of functional cortical areas. History of fMRI.- Technical Issues. Physical background. MR sequences for fMRI . Fluctuations. Spatial resolution. The BOLD effect - first clinical applications.- Clinical Applications - Basics. Electrophysiological background of fMRI. Impact on field strength in fMRI. Press-button solutions.- Clinical Applications - Clinical Mapping: The motor hand area in preoperative mapping. From auditory cortex to language perception and speech production. fMRI of language. Prediction of cognitive morbidity from temporal lobectomy: fMRI vs. Wada. Preoperative language mapping. Mapping of recovery from post-stroke aphasia. Functional neuronavigation. Direct cortical stimulation and fMRI. Correlation of fMRI and intraoperative mapping in language. Memory and issues in epilepsy surgery. Dementia. fMRI in psychiatry. Special issues in children. Presurgical mapping in children with early brain lesions.- Other Modalities. TMS and fMRI . MEG and fMRI.