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Essentials of Human Physiology for Pharmacy, Second Edition
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Main description:

A firm grasp of the functions of living organisms is one of the most important prerequisites to pharmacy study. The long-awaited second edition of Essentials of Human Physiology presents concepts in physiology in a way that prepares students for their subsequent study of pathophysiology, pharmacology, and pharmacotherapeutics.

Thoroughly revised and updated, this text maintains the clarity of the first edition, yet provides important new information to give students a solid grounding in some of the most important aspects of pharmacy. As with the first edition, the book begins with an overview of the fundamental aspects of cell membrane physiology with particular emphasis on nerve cell function. This is followed by a detailed discussion of the two major regulatory systems in the body: the nervous system and the endocrine system.

The book then continues with in-depth presentations of the reproductive, muscular, cardiovascular, immune, respiratory, digestive, and renal systems. An important focus throughout the text is how tissue and organ function are regulated in order to maintain homeostasis.

New in This Edition:

·        All 19 chapters updated and expanded

·        Revised and additional subsections of pharmacy applications

·        New sections on medical terms with pronunciations and definitions

·        New chapters on the reproductive and immune systems

·        Additional figures and tables to clarify information

.

This book was written by Laurie Kelly McCorry, a professor of physiology for eighteen years. Using simple, straightforward language, the text presents the science of physiology clearly so that undergraduate students will understand the relevance of these concepts as they relate to the practice of pharmacy. By studying and mastering the principles in this text, students will develop a secure foundation in human physiology so that they are better equipped to meet the challenges in their pharmacy career.


Contents:

PHYSIOLOGY AND THE CONCEPT OF HOMEOSTASIS


Study Objectives


Introduction


Homeostasis


Negative feedback


Positive feedback


Medical terminology


Bibliography


PLASMA MEMBRANE


Study objectives


Introduction


Structure and function of the plasma membrane


Membrane transport


Passive diffusion through the membrane


Osmosis


Mediated transport


Medical terminology


Bibliography


MEMBRANE POTENTIAL


Study objectives


Introduction


Development of the resting membrane potential


Medical terminology


Bibliography


ELECTRICAL SIGNALS


Study objectives


Introduction


Graded potentials


Action potentials


Conduction of the action potential


Medical terminology


Bibliography


SYNAPTIC TRANSMISSION


Study objectives


Introduction


Chemical synapses


Summation


Interconnections between neurons


Factors affecting synaptic transmission


Altered release


Altered interaction of a neurotransmitter with


its receptor


Altered removal of a neurotransmitter from the


synaptic cleft


Replacement of a deficient neurotransmitter


Medical terminology


Bibliography


THE NERVOUS SYSTEM


Study objectives


Introduction


Classes of neurons


Major levels of central nervous system (CNS) function


The brain


Cerebrum


Functional regions of the cerebral cortex


Basal ganglia


Thalamus


Hypothalamus


Brainstem


Cerebellum


Glial cells


Blood–brain barrier


Cerebrospinal fluid


Medical terminology


Bibliography


THE SPINAL CORD


Study objectives


Introduction


Functions of the spinal cord


Composition of the spinal cord


Gray matter


White matter


Ascending tracts


Descending tracts


Spinal reflexes


Withdrawal reflex


Crossed-extensor reflex


Medical terminology


Bibliography


PAIN


Study objectives


Introduction


Nociceptors


Fast pain and slow pain


Hyperalgesia


Neurotransmitters of the nociceptive afferent fibers


Pain pathway


Endogenous analgesic system


Gate control theory


Cutaneous pain


Deep somatic pain


Tissue ischemia


Muscle spasm


Visceral pain


Referred pain


Phantom pain


Pharmacologic treatment of pain


Nonnarcotic analgesics


Opioid analgesics


Adjuvant analgesics


Medical terminology


Bibliography


The AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM


Study objectives


Introduction


Regulation of autonomic nervous system activity


Efferent pathways of the autonomic nervous system


Divisions of the autonomic nervous system


Sympathetic division


Parasympathetic division


Neurotransmitters of the autonomic nervous system


Termination of neurotransmitter activity


Receptors for autonomic neurotransmitters


Functions of the autonomic nervous system


Adrenal medulla


Medical terminology


Bibliography


THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM


Study objectives


Introduction


Biochemical classification of hormones


Transport of hormones


Hormone elimination


Functional classification of hormones


Hormone interactions


Mechanisms of hormone action


The pituitary gland


Relationship between the hypothalamus and the


pituitary gland


Negative feedback control of hormone release


Hormones of the neurohypophysis


Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)


Oxytocin


Hormones of the adenohypophysis


Gonadotropins


Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)


Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)


Prolactin (PRL)


Growth hormone (GH)


Thyroid gland


Thyroid hormones


Calcitonin


Parathyroid glands


Adrenal glands


Adrenal medulla


Adrenal cortex


Mineralocorticoids


Glucocorticoids


Adrenal androgens


Pancreas


Insulin


Glucagon


Medical terminology


Bibliography


THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM


Study objectives


Introduction


Gametogenesis


Spermatogenesis


Oogenesis


Male reproductive system


Testes


Epididymides


Vas deferens


Ejaculatory ducts


Penis


Prostate


Seminal vesicles


Bulbourethral glands


Testosterone


Female reproductive system


Ovaries


Fallopian tubes


Uterus


Vagina


Ovarian cycle


Follicular phase


Luteal phase


Hormonal regulation of the ovarian cycle


Medical terminology


Bibliography


SKELETAL MUSCLE


Study objectives


Introduction


Muscle tension and movement


Isometric versus isotonic contraction


Structure of skeletal muscle


Sarcomeres


Thick filaments


Thin filaments


Neuromuscular junction


Mechanism of contraction


Sources of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) for muscle contraction


Muscle fatigue


Oxygen debt


Types of muscle fibers


Muscle mechanics


Number of muscle fibers contracting


Amount of tension developed by each contracting


muscle fiber


Medical terminology


Bibliography


Smooth muscle


Study objectives


Introduction


Structure of smooth muscle


Calcium and the mechanism of contraction


Smooth muscle contraction is slow and prolonged


Types of smooth muscle


Factors influencing the contractile activity of smooth muscle


Length–tension relationship


Hyperplasia


Medical terminology


Bibliography


CARDIAC PHYSIOLOGY


Study objectives


Introduction


Functional anatomy of the heart


Myocardial wall


Electrical activity of the heart


Electrocardiogram


Cardiac cycle


Ventricular filling


Isovolumetric contraction


Ejection


Isovolumetric relaxation


Medical terminology


Bibliography


CARDIAC OUTPUT


Study objectives


Introduction


Control of heart rate


Control of stroke volume


Effect of exercise on cardiac output


Medical terminology


Bibliography


THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM


Study objectives


Introduction


The blood vessels


Blood pressure throughout the systemic circulation


Blood flow through a vessel


Regulation of arterial pressure


Autonomic nervous system


Vasomotor center


Baroreceptors


Chemoreceptors


Low-pressure receptors


Vasoactive substances


Vasoconstrictors


Vasodilators


Venous return


Blood volume


Sympathetic stimulation of the veins


Skeletal muscle activity


Respiratory activity


Effects of gravity on the circulatory system


Regulation of blood flow through tissues


Active hyperemia


Autoregulation


Effects of acute exercise on the circulatory system


Capillary exchange


Medical terminology


Bibliography


BLOOD AND HEMOSTASIS


Study objectives


Introduction


Plasma


Erythrocytes


Blood types


Leukocytes


Platelets


Hemostasis


Vascular constriction


Formation of a platelet plug


Blood coagulation


Positive feedback nature of clot formation


Clot dissolution


Prevention of blood clotting and platelet aggregation in


the normal vascular system


Medical terminology


Bibliography


THE IMMUNE SYSTEM


Study objectives


Introduction


Agents of infectious disease


Effector cells of the immune system


Immune responses


Innate immune system


Inflammation


Defense by tissue macrophages


Localized vasodilation


Increased capillary permeability


Localized edema


Walling off of the inflamed area


Infiltration of phagocytes


Opsonization


Phagocytosis


Interferon


Natural killer cells


Complement system


Adaptive immune system


Antibody-mediated immunity


Classification of antibodies


Structure of antibodies


Actions of antibodies


Clonal selection theory


Primary versus secondary responses


Active versus passive immunity


Cell-mediated immunity


Types of T cells


Actions of T cells


MHC molecules


Medical terminology


Bibliography


THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM


Study objectives


Introduction


Blood–gas interface


Airways


Epithelium


Cartilage


The pleura


Mechanics of breathing


Thoracic volume


Inspiration


Expiration


Lung volume


Pulmonary pressures


Elastic behavior of the lungs


Interdependence


Airway resistance


Lung volume


Airway obstruction


Bronchial smooth muscle tone


Ventilation


Standard lung volumes


Total ventilation


Alveolar ventilation


Dead space


Diffusion


Partial pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide


Ventilation–perfusion matching


Gas transport in the blood


Transport of oxygen


Factors affecting the transport of oxygen


Transport of carbon dioxide


Regulation of ventilation


Chemoreceptor response to decreased arterial PO


Chemoreceptor response to increased arterial PCO


Chemoreceptor response to increased arterial


hydrogen ion concentration


Ventilatory response to exercise


Medical terminology


Bibliography


THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM


Study objectives


Introduction


The digestive tract wall


Mucosa


Submucosa


Muscularis externa


Serosa


Regulation of gastrointestinal function


Intrinsic nerve plexuses


Extrinsic autonomic nerves


Gastrointestinal hormones


Mouth


Pharynx


Esophagus


Stomach


Gastric motility


Gastric secretion


Liver


Gallbladder


Pancreas


Transport of bile and pancreatic juice to the small intestine


Small intestine


Motility of the small intestine


Digestion and absorption in the small intestine


Carbohydrates


Proteins


Lipids


Water and electrolytes


Large intestine


Motility of the large intestine


Secretion of the large intestine


Medical terminology


Bibliography


THE RENAL SYSTEM


Study objectives


Introduction


Functional anatomy of the kidneys


Vascular component


Tubular component


Basic renal processes


Glomerular filtration


Filtration barrier


Determinants of filtration


Tubular reabsorption


Sodium reabsorption


Chloride reabsorption


Water reabsorption


Production of urine of varying concentrations


Vasa recta


Tubular secretion


Potassium ion secretion


Hydrogen ion secretion


Plasma clearance


Renal blood flow


Autoregulation


Myogenic mechanism


Tubuloglomerular feedback


Resistance of the afferent arteriole


Sympathetic nerves


Angiotensin II


Prostaglandins


Control of sodium excretion: regulation of plasma volume


Control of water excretion: regulation of plasma osmolarity


Medical terminology


Bibliography


INDEX



 


PRODUCT DETAILS

ISBN-13: 9781420043914
Publisher: Taylor & Francis (CRC Press)
Publication date: August, 2008
Pages: 520

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