From the discovery of x-rays in 1895 through the emergence of computed tomography (CT) in the 1970s and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the 1980s, non-invasive imaging has revolutionized the practice of medicine. While these technologies have thoroughly penetrated clinical practice, scientists continue to develop novel approaches that promise to push imaging into entirely new clinical realms, while addressing the issues of dose, sensitivity, or specificity that limit existing imaging approaches. Emerging Imaging Technologies in Medicine surveys a number of emerging technologies that have the promise to find routine clinical use in the near- (less than five years), mid- (five to ten years) and long-term (more than ten years) time frames. Each chapter provides a detailed discussion of the associated physics and technology, and addresses improvements in terms of dose, sensitivity, and specificity, which are limitations of current imaging approaches. In particular, the book focuses on modalities with clinical potential rather than those likely to have an impact mainly in preclinical animal imaging.
The last ten years have been a period of fervent creativity and progress in imaging technology, with improvements in computational power, nanofabrication, and laser and detector technology leading to major new developments in phase-contrast imaging, photoacoustic imaging, and optical imaging.
Advancements in Absorption-Based X-Ray Imaging: X-Ray Tomosynthesis. Spectral/Photon-Counting Computed Tomography. X-Ray Phase-Contrast Imaging: Grating-Based X-Ray Phase-Contrast Imaging. Analyzer-Based X-Ray Phase-Contrast Imaging. Propagation-Based Imaging. Photoacoustic Imaging and Tomography: Photoacoustic Mammography. Multiparameter Photoacoustic Tomography. Diffuse Optical Imaging: Diffuse Optical Tomography: Imaging Physics and Image Formation Principles. Diffuse Optical Imaging: Application to Breast Imaging. Diffuse Optical Imaging: Application to Brain Imaging. Advances in Acoustical Imaging: Ultrasound Tomography Systems for Medical Imaging. Imaging the Elastic Properties of Tissue. Acoustic Radiation Force Imaging. Multimodality Imaging: Positron Emission Tomography-Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Multimodal Photoacoustic and Ultrasound Imaging. Multimodality Imaging: Photoacoustic Tomography/Diffuse Optical Tomography. Combined Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Near-Infrared Spectral Imaging. Recent Advancements in Three-Dimensional Microscopy: Photoacoustic Microscopy for Ophthalmic Applications. Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Microscopy. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopic Imaging: An Emerging Label-Free Approach for Molecular Imaging.