Since the second edition of this text was published, many new environmental incidents have occurred, including another nuclear disaster, a mine disaster in the United States, and the Gulf of Mexico oil spill. Updated throughout the text, Ecosystems and Human Health: Toxicology and Environmental Hazards, Third Edition explores the broad range of environmental and human health aspects of chemical and biological hazards-from natural toxins and disasters to man-made pollutants and environmental crises. The book begins with the basic principles of pharmacology and toxicology, risk analysis, and air, water, and soil pollution. It then examines various toxicants and hazards, such as airborne hazards, halogenated hydrocarbons, metals, and organic solvents. Chapters also discuss food additives and contaminants, pesticides, hormone disrupters, radiation hazards, and natural environmental hazards such as venomous and toxic animals. The text reviews the Chernobyl nuclear crisis and the Walkerton drinking water tragedy, as well as other disasters, assessing some of their long-term effects, now that sufficient time has elapsed since their occurrence.
With updates in every chapter, this third edition contains significant expansion of information on the genetics of chemical carcinogenesis, global warming, food additives, invasive species in the Great Lakes, nuclear accidents, and more. The book describes how chemical toxins and biological hazards can impact the environment and the people who live in it. The author presents numerous examples of the relationship between ecosystem health and human health. He emphasizes the need to consider the environmental impact of human activities and includes many real-world examples and new case studies.
Principles of Pharmacology and Toxicology Introduction Pharmacokinetics Pharmacodynamics Some Toxicological Considerations Mutagenesis and Carcinogenesis DNA and Cell Repair Fetal Toxicology Population and Pollution Review Questions Answers Further Reading Risk Analysis and Public Perceptions of Risk: Risky Business Introduction Assessment of Toxicity versus Risk Predicting Risk: Workplace versus the Environment Environmental Monitoring Setting Safe Limits in the Workplace Some Important Definitions Environmental Risks: Problems with Assessment and Public Perceptions Some Examples of Major Industrial Accidents and Environmental Chemical Exposures with Human Health Implications Some Legal Aspects of Risk Statistical Problems with Risk Assessment Risk Management The Precautionary Principle Review Questions Answers Further Reading Case Studies 1-2 Water and Soil Pollution Introduction Factors Affecting Toxicants in Water Some Important Definitions Toxicity Testing in Marine and Aquatic Species Water Quality Health Hazards of Pesticides and Related Chemicals Acidity and Toxic Metals Chemical Hazards from Waste Disposal Toxicants in the Great Lakes: Implications for Human Health and Wildlife Global Warming and Water Levels in the Great Lakes Marine Environment Biological Hazards in Drinking Water Walkerton Water Crisis Review Questions Answers Reference Further Reading Airborne Hazards Introduction Types of Air Pollution Sources of Air Pollution Atmospheric Distribution of Pollutants Types of Pollutants Health Effects of Air Pollution Adverse Effects of Aerial Spraying Air Pollution in the Workplace Chemical Impact of Pollutants on the Environment Climate Change Natural Factors and Climate Change Remedies Review Questions Answers Reference Further Reading Case Studies 3-8 Halogenated Hydrocarbons and Halogenated Aromatic Hydrocarbons Introduction Early Examples of Toxicity from Halogenated Hydrocarbons Physicochemical Characteristics and Classes of Halogenated Hydrocarbons Review Questions Answers Further Reading Case Studies 9-10 Toxicity of Metals Introduction Lead Mercury Cadmium Arsenic Chromium Other Metals Carcinogenicity of Metals Unusual Sources of Heavy Metal Exposure Review Questions Answers Further Reading Case Studies 11-13 Organic Solvents and Related Chemicals Introduction Classes of Solvents Solvent-Related Cancer in the Workplace Factors Influencing the Risk of a Toxic Reaction Nonoccupational Exposures to Solvents Review Questions Answers Further Reading Case Studies 14-16 Food Additives, Drug Residues, and Food Contaminants Food Additives Drug Residues Hormones as Growth Promotants in Livestock Natural Toxicants and Carcinogens in Human Foods Herbal Remedies Natural Carcinogens in Foods Review Questions Answers Reference Further Reading Case Studies 17 Pesticides Introduction Classes of Insecticides Herbicides Fungicides Government Regulation of Pesticides Problems Associated with Pesticides Balancing the Risks and Benefits Toxicity of Pesticides for Humans Review Questions Answers Further Reading Case Studies 18-19 Mycotoxins and Other Toxins from Unicellular Organisms Introduction Some Health Problems Associated with Mycotoxins Some Specific Mycotoxins Economic Impact of Mycotoxins Detoxification of Grains Other Toxins in Unicellular Members of the Plant Kingdom Review Questions Answers Further Reading Animal and Plant Poisons Introduction Toxic and Venomous Animals Freshwater Algae Toxic and Venomous Land Animals Venomous Arthropods Toxic Plants and Mushrooms Review Questions Answers Further Reading Case Studies 20-26 Environmental Hormone Disrupters Introduction Lake Apopka Incident Brief Review of the Physiology of Estrogens and Androgens Disruption of Endocrine Function Plastic-Associated Chemicals Phytoestrogens Results of Human Studies on Xenoestrogens Effects of Xenoestrogens and Phytoestrogens in Livestock and Wildlife Problems in Interpreting and Extrapolating Results to the Human Setting Review Questions Answers References Further Reading Case Study 27 Radiation Hazards Introduction Sources and Types of Radiation Measurement of Radiation Some Major Nuclear Disasters of Historic and Current Importance Radon Gas: The Natural Radiation Tissue Sensitivity to Radiation Microwaves Cell Phone Use and Brain Tumors Ultraviolet Radiation Extra-Low Frequency Electromagnetic Radiation Irradiation of Foodstuffs Irradiation of Insect Pests Review Questions Answers Further Reading Case Study 28 Gaia and Chaos: How Things Are Connected The Gaia Hypothesis Chaos Theory Other Examples of Interconnected Systems Food Production and the Environment The Environment and Cancer Further Reading Case Study Reviews Index