Dental Materials At A Glance is the new title in the highly popular at a Glance series. It provides a concise and accessible introduction and revision aid. Following the familiar, easy-to-use at a Glance format, each topic is presented as a double-page spread with key facts accompanied by clear diagrams encapsulating essential information. Systematically organized and succinctly delivered, Dental Materials At A Glance covers:* Each major class of dental materials and biomaterials* Basic chemical and physical properties* Clinical handling and application* Complications and adverse effects of materials Dental Materials At A Glance is the ideal companion for all students of dentistry and junior clinicians. In addition the text will provide valuable insight for general dental practitioners wanting to update their materials knowledge.
Foreword. Dedication. Chapter 1 Properties of materials - tensile properties. Mechanical properties. Biting forces. Stress. Proportional limit. Strain. Poisson's ratio. Elastic modulus. Stress-strain curves. Resilience. Toughness. Chapter 2 Toughness, elastic/plastic behavior and hardness. Fracture toughness. Elastic and plastic behavior. Determining mechanical properties. Tensile properties. Compressive strength. Shear strength. Transverse strength. Indentation hardness. Abrasion and wear resistance. Chapter 3 Physical properties of materials. Thermal properties. Thermal conductivity. Specific heat. Thermal diffusivity. Linear coefficient of thermal expansion. Electrical properties. Electrical conductivity. Dielectric constant. Color and appearance. Chapter 4 Gypsum materials. Gypsum materials. Plaster, stone and die stone. Setting reaction. Water/powder (W/P) ratio. Factors in setting. Expansion. Spatulation. Water temperature. Humidity. Colloids. Physical properties. Mixing. Setting time. Compressive strength. Tensile strength. Surface hardness. Setting expansion. Comparative properties. Chapter 5 Dental waxes. Introduction. Composition. Mineral waxes. Plant waxes. Animal waxes. Synthetic waxes. Gums, fats and resins. Wax properties. Melting and thermal expansion. Mechanical properties. Flow. Dental waxes. Pattern waxes. Baseplate wax. Casting waxes. Inlay waxes. Sticky wax. Impression waxes. Chapter 6 Inelastic impression materials. Factors in impression-making. Recording detail. Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids. Yield value, viscosity and thixotropy. Inelastic impression materials. Impression plaster. Impression compound. Zinc oxide-eugenol (ZOE). Chapter 7 Elastic impression materials. Alginate (irreversible) hydrocolloids. Setting reaction. P/W ratio and mixing. Accuracy. Strength. Problems with alginates. Agar-agar (reversible) hydrocolloid. Polysulfide rubber. Condensation-cured silicones. Addition-cured silicones (polysiloxanes). Polyether impression materials. Mixing. Properties of elastic impression materials. Setting properties. Mechanical properties. Tray adhesives. Chapter 8 Denture base materials. Polymerization reactions. Reaction initiation. Reaction propagation. Reaction termination. Polymer properties. Denture base polymers. High-impact resins. Pour-type resins. Rapid-cure resins. Light-cure resins. Problems with denture bases. Denture base resins. Working time. Palatal vault. Denture teeth. Chapter 9 Investments and casting. Casting and investments. Dental casting. Composition. Gypsum-bonded investment. Composition. Properties. Effect of temperature. Setting and hygroscopic expansion. Other factors in expansion. High-temperature investments. Phosphate-bonded investments. Silica-bonded investments. Chapter 10 Precious metal alloys. Gold and noble metals. Pure gold. Noble metals. Precious metals. Gold alloys. Carat and fineness of gold. Gold-copper alloys. Dental gold casting alloys. Low-carat gold alloys. Heat treatment of gold. Considerations in casting. Metal shrinkage. Sprues. Wax patterns. Problems with castings. Chapter 11 Base metal alloys. Cast chromium alloys. Alloying elements. Investments and casting. Microstructure. Heat treatment. Physical/mechanical properties. Titanium and titanium alloys. Pure titanium. Titanium alloys. Dental implants. Orthodontic wires. Bonding. Combination systems. Bonded dentin. Chapter 12 Dental cements. Cement categories. Cement consistency. Thermal properties. Mechanical properties. Provisional luting agents. Water-based dental cements for permanent luting. Zinc phosphate. Zinc polyacrylate (polycarboxylate) cement. Glass ionomer cement (GIC). Chapter 13 Resin-modified and resin cements. Zinc oxide cements. Hybrid ionomer cements. Setting reaction. Properties. Applications. Resin cements. Adhesive resin cements. Properties. Applications. Chapter 14 Cavity varnishes, liners and bases. Cavity varnishes. Composition. Varnish film characteristics. Applications. Cavity liners. Composition. Characteristics. Low-strength bases. Ca(OH)2 bases. ZOE bases. Visible light-cured bases. Properties. High-strength bases. Characteristics of high-strength bases. Chapter 15 Dental amalgam. Dental amalgam alloys. Setting reaction. Physical properties. Manipulation and handling properties. Corrosion. Chapter 16 Adhesive dentistry. Principles. Adhesion and cohesion. Dental adhesion. Composition of Enamel and Dentin. Etching of enamel. Adhesion to enamel. Problems in enamel bonding. Chapter 17 Bonding to dentin. Dentin bonding. Conditioning. Priming. Chapter 18 Composite restorative resins. Dental composites. Composite restorative materials. Resin matrix. Curing systems. Filler particles. Microfilled composites. Hybrid composites. Packable (condensable) composites. Strengthening effects. Compomers. Chapter 19 Dental porcelain. Manufacture. Composition. Feldspar. Silica. Kaolin. Metallic oxides. Dental porcelains. High-fusing porcelains. Medium-fusing porcelains. Low-fusing porcelain. Very low fusing porcelain. Glazes. Stains. Structure. Chapter 20 Manipulation and properties of porcelain. Manipulation. Porcelain paste and stacking. Condensation. Dies. Drying. Firing (sintering). Glazing. Firing shrinkage. Physical properties. Strength. Porosity. Hardness. Chapter 21 Advanced ceramic systems. Porcelain strengthening. Ion exchange. Thermal strengthening. Alumina inserts and cores. Aluminous porcelain. Leucite-reinforced porcelain. Metal-bonded porcelain. Hot-pressed ceramics. High leucite molded glass. Lithium ceramics. Slip-cast ceramics. Castable glass ceramic. Machinable ceramics. Veneers. Chapter 22 Porcelain bonding alloys. PFM restorations. Ceramic-noble metal systems. High-gold alloys. Low-gold alloys. Types 4, 5 and 6 alloys. Ceramic-base metal systems. Nickel-base alloys. Cobalt-base alloys. Titanium alloys. Casting of PFM copings. Alloying elements. Sand blasting. Chapter 23 Restorative materials in endodontics. Canal instrumentation. Canal irrigation. Sealer cements. Canal obturation. Endodontic leakage. Chapter 24 Orthodontic materials. Intra-oral appliances. Extra-oral appliances and jaw orthopedics. Removable orthodontic appliances. Fixed orthodontic appliances. Chapter 25 Grinding, polishing and finishing. Material removal. Abrasives. Dental burs. Coolant/lubricant effects. Finishing and polishing regimens. Chapter 26 Adverse effects of dental biomaterials. Categories of biomaterials. Toxicity and carcinogenicity. Hypersensitivity and allergic reactions. Type I and type IV reactions. Metal allergies. Chapter 27 Enamel, dentin and cementum. Dental enamel. Dentin. Cementum. Fluoridation of enamel. Strontium. Chapter 28 Bone. Mineral composition. Structure. Development and aging. Dental implants and bone. Glossary. Index.