The accessibility of the skin in vivo has resulted in the development of non-invasive methods in the past 40 years that offer accurate measurements of skin properties and structures from microscopic to macroscopic levels. However, the mechanisms involved in these properties are still only partly understood. Similar to many other domains, including biomedical engineering, numerical modeling has appeared as a complementary key actor for improving our knowledge of skin physiology. This book presents, for the first time, the contributions that focus on scientific computing and numerical modeling to offer a deeper understanding of the mechanisms involved in skin physiology. The book is structured around some skin properties and functions, including optical and biomechanical properties and skin barrier function and homeostasis, with-for each of them-several chapters that describe either biological or physical models at different scales.
Preface; Howard I. Maibach Foreword; Bernard Querleux PART 1: Skin color Multilayer Modeling of Skin Color and Translucency; Gladimir V. G. Baranoski, Tenn F. Chen, and Aravind Krishnaswamy Dermal component based optical modeling of the skin translucency: impact on the skin color; Igor Meglinski, Alexander Doronin, Alexey N. Bashkatov, Elina A. Genina, and Valery V. Tuchin Mathematics and biological process of skin pigmentation; Josef Thingnes, Leiv Oyehaug, and Eivind Hovig PART 2: Skin biomechanics State-of-the-art constitutive models of skin biomechanics; Georges Limbert Fiber-matrix models of the dermis; Cormac Flynn Cellular scale model of the stratum corneum; Roberto Santoprete, and Bernard Querleux PART 3: Skin barrier Mathematical models of skin permeability: microscopic transport models and their predictions; Gerald B. Kasting, and Johannes M. Nitsche Cellular scale modelling of the skin barrier; Dirk Feuchter, Michael Heisig, Arne Naegel, Martin Scherer, and Gabriel Wittum Molecular scale modeling of skin permeation; Sophie Martel, and Pierre-Alain Carrupt Accessing the molecular organization of the stratum corneum using high resolution electron microscopy and computer simulation; Lars Norlen, Jamshed Anwar, and Ozan Oktem PART 4: Skin fluids and components Water diffusion through stratum corneum; Robert E. Imhof, and Peng Xiao Accurate multi-scale skin model suitable for determining the sensitivity and specificity of changes of skin components; Jurg Frohlich, Sonja Hulova, Christian Beyer, and Daniel Erni Model based Quantification of Skin Microcirculatory Perfusion; Ingemar Fredriksson, Marcus Larsson, and Tomas Stromberg PART 5: Skin homeostasis Graphical Multi-Scale Modeling of Epidermal Homeostasis with EPISIM; Thomas Sutterlin, and Niels Grabe Heuristic Modeling Applied to Epidermal Homeostasis; Francois Iris, Manuel Gea, Paul-Henri Lampe, and Bernard Querleux