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MORE ABOUT THIS BOOK

Main description:

Clinical Orthoptics has become established as a basic reference text providing fundamental information on anatomy, innervation and orthoptic investigation, plus diagnosis and management of strabismus, ocular motility and related disturbances. It is aimed at trainee ophthalmologists and orthoptic undergraduate students. Qualified orthoptists, general ophthalmologists and optometrists will also find valuable guidance in these pages.

In this edition, the author has maintained the goal of producing a user–friendly, clinically relevant and succinct book, while revising it to reflect a variety of developments in the field.


FEATURES



  • Essential reading for students of orthoptics and ophthalmolology

  • Now fully revised and updated

  • Generously illustrated with photographs and line drawings

  • Includes diagnostic aids, case reports, and helpful glossary


Contents:

Preface xi

Acknowledgements xii


List of Figures xiii


List of Tables xvii


SECTION I 1


1 Extraocular Muscle Anatomy and Innervation 3


Muscle pulleys 3


Ocular muscles 5


Innervation 10


Associated cranial nerves 12


References 15


Further reading 16


2 Binocular Single Vision 17


Worth s classification 17


Development 17


Retinal correspondence 19


Physiology of stereopsis 20


Fusion 23


Retinal rivalry 24


Suppression 24


Diplopia 25


References 27


Further reading 28


3 Ocular Motility 29


Saccadic system 29


Smooth pursuit system 31


Vergence system 33


Vestibular–ocular response and optokinetic response 35


Brainstem control 37


Muscle sequelae 39


Past–pointing 40


Bell s phenomenon 41


References 41


Further reading 43


4 Orthoptic Investigative Procedures 45


Visual acuity 45


Cover test 60


Ocular motility 64


Accommodation and convergence 68


Retinal correspondence 73


Fusion 77


Stereopsis 82


Suppression 89


Synoptophore 91


Aniseikonia 97


Fixation 98


Measurement of deviations 99


Hess charts 105


Field of binocular single vision 108


Uniocular field of vision 110


Measurement of torsion 111


Parks–Helveston three–step test 113


Diplopia charts 113


Bielchowsky phenomenon (dark wedge test) 115


Forced duction test 115


Forced generation test 115


Orthoptic exercises 115


References 119


Further reading 124


SECTION II 129


5 Heterophoria 131


Classification 131


Aetiology 131


Causes of decompensation 132


Esophoria 132


Exophoria 132


Hyperphoria/hypophoria 133


Alternating hyperphoria 133


Alternating hypophoria 133


Cyclophoria 133


Incomitant heterophoria 133


Hemifield slide 133


Investigation of heterophoria 134


Management 135


References 136


Further reading 137


6 Heterotropia 138


Esotropia 138


Factors necessary for development of binocular single vision 139


Constant esotropia with an accommodative element 140


Constant esotropia without an accommodative element 141


Accommodative esotropia 146


Relating to fixation distance 151


Exotropia 155


Hypertropia 168


Hypotropia 168


Cyclotropia 169


Dissociated vertical deviation 170


Dissociated horizontal deviation 172


Quality of life 173


Pseudostrabismus 174


References 175


Further reading 184


7 Microtropia 189


Terminology 189


Classification 190


Investigation 191


Management 194


References 194


Further reading 195


8 Amblyopia and Visual Impairment 197


Classification 197


Aetiology 197


Investigation 198


Management 199


Eccentric fixation 205


Cerebral visual impairment 205


Delayed visual maturation 206


PHACE syndrome 207


References 207


Further reading 212


9 Aphakia 215


Methods of correction 215


Investigation 215


Problems with unilateral aphakia 216


Management 216


References 218


Further reading 219


SECTION III 221


10 Incomitant Strabismus 223


Aetiology 223


Aid to diagnosis 225


Diplopia 226


Abnormal head posture 227


References 230


Further reading 231


11 A and V Patterns 232


Classification 232


Aetiology 232


Investigation 236


Management 238


References 241


Further reading 243


12 Accommodation and Convergence Disorders 245


Accommodative disorders 245


Presbyopia physiological 245


Presbyopia premature (non–physiological) 246


Accommodative insufficiency 247


Accommodative fatigue 248


Accommodative paralysis 248


Accommodative spasm 249


Accommodative inertia 250


Micropsia 251


Macropsia 251


Convergence anomalies 251


Convergence insufficiency 252


Convergence paralysis 254


Convergence spasm 254


Specific learning difficulty 254


References 255


Further reading 257


13 Ptosis and Pupils 259


Ptosis 259


Marcus Gunn jaw–winking syndrome 263


Lid retraction 264


Pupils 264


References 269


Further reading 271


14 Neurogenic Disorders 272


III (third) cranial nerve 272


IV (fourth) cranial nerve 280


VI (sixth) cranial nerve 288


Multiple sclerosis 292


Acquired motor fusion deficiency 293


Non–accidental injury 294


Premature visual impairment 295


Ophthalmoplegia 296


References 300


Further reading 307


15 Mechanical Paralytic Strabismus 310


Congenital cranial dysinnervation disorders 312


Brown s syndrome 319


Adherence syndrome 324


Moebius syndrome 325


Strabismus fixus syndrome 327


Thyroid eye disease 327


Orbital injuries 333


Blow–out fracture 334


Soft tissue injury 339


Supraorbital fracture 341


Naso–orbital fracture 341


Zygoma fracture 341


Conjunctival shortening syndrome 342


Retinal detachment 342


Cataract 343


Macular translocation surgery 344


References 344


Further reading 350


16 Myogenic Disorders 354


Thyroid eye disease 354


Chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia 354


Myasthenia gravis 355


Myotonic dystrophy 358


Ocular myositis 358


Kearns Sayre ophthalmoplegia 359


References 359


Further reading 361


17 Craniofacial Synostoses 362


Plagiocephaly 362


Brachycephaly 362


Scaphocephaly/dolichocephaly 362


Occipital plagiocephaly 362


Apert′s syndrome 363


Craniofrontonasal dysplasia 363


Crouzon′s syndrome 363


Pfeiffer syndrome 363


Saethre Chotzen syndrome 364


Unicoronal syndrome 364


General signs and symptoms 364


Ocular signs and symptoms 365


Management 365


References 366


Further reading 367


18 Nystagmus 368


Aetiology 368


Classification 368


Investigation 373


Management 375


References 378


Further reading 380


19 Supranuclear and Internuclear Disorders 382


Saccadic movement disorders 382


Smooth pursuit movement disorders 384


Vergence movement disorders 385


Gaze palsy 386


Optokinetic movement disorders 394


Vestibular movement disorders 395


Brainstem syndromes 395


Skew deviation 397


Ocular tilt reaction 398


Ocular investigation 398


Management options 400


References 401


Further reading 405


SECTION IV Appendices 407


Diagnostic Aids 409


Abbreviations of Orthoptic Terms 418


Diagrammatic Recording of Ocular Motility 424


Diagrammatic Recording of Nystagmus 426


Glossary 428


Case Reports 441


Index 459


PRODUCT DETAILS

ISBN-13: 9781118341605
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons Ltd (Wiley–Blackwell)
Publication date: March, 2012
Pages: 486
Dimensions: 172.00 x 244.00 x 23.04

Subcategories: Ophthalmology and Optometry

MEET THE AUTHOR

Fiona J. Rowe is Lecturer in Orthoptics at the University of Liverpool and an Honorary Research Vision Scientist at the Department of Orthoptics and Ophthalmology, Warrington Hospital. Dr Rowe also lectures extensively to trainee and qualified ophthalmologists, ophthalmic nurses, and other members of the multi–disciplinary eye care team.