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Children With School Problems: A Physician's Manual
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Main description:

An essential tool for all physicians who work with children


Physicians want to know more about children with learning problems, and parents want paediatricians and family physicians to provide more help when their kids struggle in school. Children with School Problems: A Physician′s Manual gives community–based physicians more precise information and tools to help them assess and manage children with learning disabilities and other challenges in school. The second edition contains updated and expanded content about intellectual disability, developmental coordination disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and more, with many new references and web–based resources.


This comprehensive reference contains five sections:



  • Foundations: Presents pertinent background information for physicians seeing children with learning problems.

  • Diagnostics: Provides tools and approaches to obtain the necessary information to develop a diagnostic formulation and begin to synthesize a plan. A number of materials can be copied for clinical use, including questionnaires for parents and teachers, graded reading passages, and a specific teacher′s questionnaire for the preschool age group.

  • Management: Provides information about the educational, behavioural, and medical management of children′s learning problems.

  • Trajectories: Follows students through the teen years and into adulthood to help clinicians understand prognosis so that they can counsel families about these conditions, both initially and over the longer term.

  • Resources: Includes a series of illustrative cases, a worksheet to help physicians put together their own referral teams using local resources, and a detailed glossary.


Written and edited by Canada′s leading experts in developmental and behavioural paediatrics, Children with School Problems is an invaluable resource.


Back cover:

An essential tool for all physicians who work with children


Physicians want to know more about children with learning problems, and parents want paediatricians and family physicians to provide more help when their kids struggle in school. Children with School Problems: A Physician′s Manual gives community–based physicians more precise information and tools to help them assess and manage children with learning disabilities and other challenges in school. The second edition contains updated and expanded content about intellectual disability, developmental coordination disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and more, with many new references and web–based resources.


This comprehensive reference contains five sections:



  • Foundations: Presents pertinent background information for physicians seeing children with learning problems.

  • Diagnostics: Provides tools and approaches to obtain the necessary information to develop a diagnostic formulation and begin to synthesize a plan. A number of materials can be copied for clinical use, including questionnaires for parents and teachers, graded reading passages, and a specific teacher′s questionnaire for the preschool age group.

  • Management: Provides information about the educational, behavioural, and medical management of children′s learning problems.

  • Trajectories: Follows students through the teen years and into adulthood to help clinicians understand prognosis so that they can counsel families about these conditions, both initially and over the longer term.

  • Resources: Includes a series of illustrative cases, a worksheet to help physicians put together their own referral teams using local resources, and a detailed glossary.


Written and edited by Canada′s leading experts in developmental and behavioural paediatrics, Children with School Problems is an invaluable resource.


Contents:

About the Canadian Paediatric Society xi

Acknowledgements xiii


Introduction xvii


Part I: Foundations 1


Chapter 1: Overview of Children with Learning Problems, Schools, and Approaches to Helping 1


Prevalence of learning problems 1


Types of learning disabilities 4


Response to intervention 5


Etiology/mechanisms of LDs 5


Natural history 7


Treatment/management 9


Chapter 2: Understanding and Working with Schools 12


Educational legislation and school organization 12


Terms used by the education system 13


Controversies in education 15


Chapter 3: Early Development of the Nervous System and School Performance 18


Brain development in utero 18


Brain development and the origin of learning difficulties 18


Disruptions in CNS development critical periods in utero 19


The newborn period 21


Acquired biologic childhood factors 21


Childhood social factors 23


Chapter 4: Development and School Entry 27


School readiness 27


Age of entry 27


Typical preschool learning and skills present at the time of school entry 28


Other predictors of success at the time of school entry 30


Chapter 5: Provincial/Territorial Special Education Legislation 32


British Columbia 33


Alberta 34


Saskatchewan 35


Manitoba 36


Ontario 36


Quebec 38


Prince Edward Island 38


Nova Scotia 39


New Brunswick 40


Newfoundland and Labrador 41


Northwest Territories 42


Nunavut 42


Yukon Territory 43


Part II: Diagnostics 44


Chapter 6: Data Gathering 44


Reviewing previous reports 44


Interpreting psycho–educational assessments 44


Anatomy of a psycho–educational assessment 45


The history 47


Setting the stage 47


Interviewing parents 48


Interviewing children 49


Introducing the idea of counselling 53


Chapter 7: Questionnaires 55


Collection of Information from Parents and Teachers 55


Consent to Release Information from School 58


Parent Questionnaire 59


Preschool/Kindergarten Questionnaire 66


School Questionnaire (6 18 Years) 71


Chapter 8: The Physical Examination of the Child with Learning Problems 77


Rule out physical disease 77


Evaluate co–morbid medical conditions 78


Look for minor physical anomalies 79


Describe neurological fi ndings 79


Rule out contraindications and establish a baseline for medication use 80


Chapter 9: Medical Investigations of Children with Learning Problems 82


Medical conditions 82


Medical investigations 82


Chapter 10: Developmental and Academic Skills: Screening, Sampling, and Assessment 86


Levels of assessment by physicians 86


Screening, sampling, and assessment 87


Chapter 11: Differential Diagnosis of the Child Who Is Not Doing Well in School 137


The differential diagnosis of poor academic achievement 137


The differential diagnosis of noncompliance and oppositional behaviour 144


The differential diagnosis of motor incoordination 144


The differential diagnosis of social interaction problems 145


Part III: Management 148


Chapter 12: Sharing the Formulation: Feedback to Parents and School 148


Formulation 148


Feedback to parents 149


Feedback to the school 149


Sample formulation 150


Chapter 13: Educational Interventions 152


Demystification 152


Classroom placement 153


Out–of–school instruction 154


Specific remediation 155


Role of physicians advice to students 160


Organization, studying, and homework 161


Chapter 14: Behavioural Management 164


Underlying factors affecting behaviour: Cognitive abilities 164


Underlying factors affecting behaviour: Regulation 164


Strategies for helping with regulatory problems 165


Evidence–based approaches to behaviour: Programs, resources, and general principles 166


Self–esteem and the child with school problems 172


Relationships with peers 175


Chapter 15: Medical Management 177


The role of medications in managing children with school problems 177


Use of medication for ADHD 177


Treating associated medical conditions 190


Chapter 16: Complementary and Alternative Therapies for Learning and Attentional Disorders 193


Evaluating research on CAM 193


Discussing CAM with parents 194


Part IV: Trajectories 197


Chapter 17: Supporting the Adolescent with Learning Problems 197


The challenges of transition: Junior high and high school 197


Working with teens who have learning problems 198


Strategies and supports for home and school 199


Evaluating teens with learning problems 199


Management issues when following adolescents 200


Chapter 18: Learning Problems from Adolescence into Adulthood 202


Factors contributing to quality of outcome 202


Adults with learning disabilities 204


ADHD in adult life 205


Adults with intellectual disability 205


Delinquency and learning problems 206


Learning problems and adult psychiatric disorders 207


Indicators of learning problems in adults 207


Resources for adults with learning problems 208


Part V: Resources 211


Chapter 19: Encouraging Reading 211


What can physicians do? 211


What can parents do? 212


Choosing books for children 216


Chapter 20: Illustrative Cases 217


Case I: Derek: Attention weakness and academic delay 217


Case II: Parminder: Reading diffi culties and English as a second language (ESL) 220


Case III: Jewel: Academic delay, behavioural concerns in the context of prenatal alcohol exposure 223


Case IV: Tristan: Gross motor and fine motor skill clumsiness, poor attention, and impulsivity 229


Chapter 21: A Resource Worksheet for Physicians Who Work with Students with Learning Problems 234


Glossary 243


Index 247


List of Tables


3 1 Early Risks for Learning Diffi culties 21


3 2 Childhood Risks for Learning Diffi culties 24


6 1 IQ Classifi cations in Current Use 46


8 1 Common Minor Physical Anomalies 79


8 2 Testing for Soft Neurological Signs 80


8 3 Details of the Physical Examination for School Learning Problems 81


15 1 Medical Treatment for Uncomplicated ADHD in Children 183


15 2 Medical Treatment for Uncomplicated ADHD in Adolescents 185


List of Figures


1 1 Executive Functions Impaired in ADHD 4


6 1 Normal Standard Distribution and Standard Scores 46


16 1 Evaluation Framework for Complementary and Alternative Therapies 195


20 1 Canadian Norms (Mean and SD) for Girls Aged 6 to 16 Years 226


20 2 Canadian Norms (Mean and SD) for Boys Aged 6 to 16 Years 227


20 3 The Palpebral Fissure Length Being Measured with a Small Plastic Ruler 227


20 4 The Three Diagnostic Facial Features of FAS 228


List of Tools


10 1 Complex Sentences (Ages 4 to 6 Years) 92


10 2 Complex Sentences (Ages 6 to 8 Years, 11 Months) 93


10 3 Story Comprehension (Ages 6 Years to 7 Years, 11 Months) 94


10 4 Verbal Instructions 95


10 5 Auditory Comprehension and Recall (Ages 9 Years to 12 Years, 11 Months) 97


10 6 Yes, No, Maybe: Higher–Level Language Function 99


10 7 Development of Oral Language Skills (Ages 5 to 12 Years) 100


10 8 Human Figure Drawings 106


10 9 Visual Matching Exercises (Ages 4 to 6 Years) 108


10 10 Visual Whole: Part Analysis (Ages 6 to 8 Years, 11 Months) 109


10 11 Lock–and–Key Designs (Ages 9 to 14 Years, 11 Months) 110


10 12 The Gesell Copy Forms 111


10 13 Reading Tests 112


10 14 Assessment of Handwriting Speed (Ages 6 to 9 Years) 118


10 15 Evaluation of Written Stories Using BASIS 119


10 16 Reading and Writing Skills in School–aged Children 131


10 17 Sample Spelling Battery 133


10 18 Sample Mathematics Tests 134


10 19 Assessment of Auditory Memory from Repetition of Digits 135


PRODUCT DETAILS

ISBN-13: 9781118452745
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Publication date: November, 2012
Pages: 228
Dimensions: 150.00 x 274.00 x 16.21

Subcategories:

MEET THE AUTHOR

The Canadian Paediatric Society is a national professional association, representing more than 3,000 paediatricians, paediatric subspecialists, paediatric residents, and other health professionals who work with and care for children and youth. The CPS is active in professional education, public policy advocacy, surveillance and research, and education for parents and caregivers.


Dr. Debra Andrews is associate professor of paediatrics and divisional director for developmental paediatrics at the University of Alberta. She is medical director of two tertiary interdisciplinary programs at the Glenrose Rehabilitation Hospital that provide assessment and intervention for school–aged children with complex learning and behavioural problems.


Dr. William Mahoney is a clinical associate professor of paediatrics, Faculty of Health Sciences, McMaster University, and has worked with children with school problems for over thirty years. He is the former medical director of the developmental paediatric, rehabilitation, and autism programs of McMaster Children′s Hospital.