The book features comparative perspectives on the field of chemical ecology, present and future, offered by scientists from a wide variety of disciplines. The scientists contributing to this book biologists, ecologists, biochemists, chemists, biostatisticians are interested in marine, freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems and work on life forms ranging from micro-organisms to mammals, including humans, living in areas from the tropics to polar regions. Here, they cross their analyses of the present state of chemical ecology and its perspectives for the future. Those presented here include complex, multispecies communities and cover a wide range both of organisms and of the types of molecules that mediate the interactions between them. Up to now, no book has presented a solid scientific treatment of a wide range of examples. This book illustrates a diverse panel of the most advanced aspects of this rapidly expanding field.
Foreword xi Stephanie THIEBAULT and Francoise GAILL Introduction xiii Anne-Genevieve BAGNERES and Martine HOSSAERT-MCKEY Chapter 1. Biodiversity and Chemical Mediation 1 Bertrand SCHATZ, Doyle MCKEY and Thierry PEREZ 1.1. Systematic and integrative taxonomy from chemical ecology 2 1.2. Scent communication between sexual partners 4 1.3. Scent communication between species 6 1.4. Chemical mimicry, to enhance reproduction 8 1.5. A dialog that sometimes evolves into an interaction network 10 1.6. Conclusions 18 1.7. Bibliography 18 Chapter 2. Chemical Ecology: An Integrative and Experimental Science 23 Anne-Marie CORTESERO, Magali PROFFIT, Christophe DUPLAIS and Frederique VIARD 2.1. Semiochemicals 23 2.2. Chemical ecology in multitrophic networks and co-evolution between species 28 2.3. Contribution of chemical ecology to the study of tropical plant diversification 32 2.4. When chemical ecology sheds light on the process of biological invasion an example demonstrating integration between chemistry and ecology 36 2.5. Protection is in the air: how plants defend themselves against phytophagous insects through VOC emissions 40 2.6. Conclusions 43 2.7. Bibliography 43 Chapter 3. Scents in the Social Life of Non-Human and Human Primates 47 Marie CHARPENTIER, Guillaume ODONNE and Benoist SCHAAL 3.1. Primate societies and their complex systems of communication 47 3.2. The role of odors in human communication 53 3.2.1. Human odors convey a large panel of cues 53 3.2.2. Body odors reflect internal states 55 3.2.3. What are the functions of social smells in human daily life? 56 3.2.4. Human pheromones, fact or fiction? 59 3.3. The senses of smell and taste in the search for food and remedies 61 3.3.1. Interactions between senses and food in primates 61 3.3.2. Senses and self-medication in animals 62 3.3.3. Senses in human therapies 63 3.3.4. An evolutionary conception of the link between senses and health 65 3.4. Conclusions the adaptive functions of the sense of smell in microsmatic species 66 3.5. Bibliography 68 Chapter 4. Microbiota and Chemical Ecology 71 Soizic PRADO, Catherine LEBLANC and Sylvie REBUFFAT 4.1. The protagonist microorganisms of chemical ecology 71 4.2. Strategies for the study of microbiota 72 4.2.1. How should the microbiota be characterized? 72 4.2.2. What tools are available to help understand the roles of the microbiota? 73 4.3. The molecular dialog of microorganisms 75 4.3.1. Language and social life of microorganisms 75 4.3.2. The AMPs, main actors in the equilibrium of bacterial communities 78 4.3.3. Fungi and bacteria communicate to better help each other 79 4.3.4. When helping each other degenerates into chemical warfare between bacteria and fungi 80 4.3.5. The Trichoderma fungi: heavy artillery against pathogenic fungi 80 4.4. Chemical communication between microorganisms and their hosts 81 4.4.1. Plant bacteria relationships: essential interactions with different partners 81 4.4.2. Plants also establish intimate relations with fungi 83 4.4.3. Mutualist actinobacteria provide care to insects 85 4.4.4. Chemical communication between microorganisms and their host in the marine environment 87 4.5. Regulations and evolution of the interactions in changing ecosystems and environments 89 4.5.1. Contribution of chemical ecology to the understanding of biosynthesis mechanisms of chemical mediators 90 4.5.2. Metabolic networks: new tools for studying the evolution of host/microbiota interactions 91 4.6. Conclusions from chemical ecology to future applications: impacts of the study of the microbiota 91 4.7. Bibliography 92 Chapter 5. From Chemical Ecology to Ecogeochemistry 95 Catherine FERNANDEZ, Virginie BALDY and Nadine LE BRIS 5.1. Balance between primary and secondary metabolism 96 5.2. Role of secondary metabolites in biotic interactions and community structure 99 5.3. Secondary metabolites and ecosystem functioning: plant soil relation brown food chain 103 5.4. Integration of biotic and abiotic dynamics: benthic marine microhabitats 109 5.5. Conclusions 114 5.6. Bibliography 114 Chapter 6. Omics in Chemical Ecology 117 Sylvie BAUDINO, Christophe LUCAS and Carole SMADJA 6.1. Introduction: the different omic technologies 118 6.2. From omics to signals: identifying new active molecules 120 6.3. From omics to the ecology of communities: identifying chemical interactions of organisms in their environment 121 6.4. From omics to molecular bases: revealing the genetic and molecular bases of chemical interactions 122 6.5. From omics to physiology: characterizing the modes of production and the modes of reception of active molecules 127 6.6. From omics to the role of environment: understanding the impact of biotic and abiotic factors on interactions 128 6.7. From omics to evolution: understanding and predicting the adaptive value of chemical interactions 131 6.8. Conclusions and perspectives 133 6.9. Bibliography 134 Chapter 7. Metabolomic Contributions to Chemical Ecology 139 Philippe POTIN, Florence NICOLE and Olivier P. THOMAS 7.1. Definition of metabolomics 139 7.2. Different strategies of the metabolomic approaches 140 7.3. The different steps for conducting a metabolomic study 141 7.3.1. Experimental design and sampling 142 7.3.2. Analytical approaches 144 7.3.3. Data processing 144 7.4. Applications of metabolomics 151 7.4.1. Chemical biodiversity and chemotaxonomy 151 7.4.2. Study of the regulation and evolution of metabolic/ biosynthesis pathways 152 7.4.3. Contributions to functional ecology 155 7.4.4. Application of metabolomics to the study of environmental disturbances 157 7.5. Conclusions 157 7.6. Bibliography 158 Chapter 8. Chemical, Biological and Computational Tools in Chemical Ecology 161 Nicolas BARTHES, Jean-Claude CAISSARD, Jeremy JUST and Xavier FERNANDEZ 8.1. Chemical tools 161 8.1.1. Analytical tools of chromatography 161 8.1.2. Analytical approach by nuclear magnetic resonance 168 8.1.3. Secondary metabolite imagery techniques 170 8.2. Sequencing tools 173 8.2.1. Principles, strengths and limitations of NGS 174 8.2.2. Major domains of NGS applications 175 8.3. Databases: biodiversity in silico 179 8.3.1. Databases of chemical compounds and general ecology 180 8.3.2. Databases for the omics that can be used in chemical ecology 181 8.4. Conclusions 183 8.5. Bibliography 183 Chapter 9. Academic and Economic Values of Understanding Chemical Communication 185 Bernard BANAIGS, Ali AL MOURABIT, Guillaume CLAVE and Claude GRISON 9.1. Nature as a model 185 9.2. Nature as a model for development of new molecules of interest 187 9.2.1. From chemical mediators to new bioactive structural archetypes 188 9.2.2. Biosynthesis and biomimetic synthesis 192 9.2.3. Chemical mediators and ligand/receptor interactions: to the discovery of new cellular receptors and biochemical tools 195 9.3. Chemical ecology and sustainable development 196 9.3.1. Bio-control 198 9.3.2. Bio-inspired chemistry and remedial phytotechnologies 200 9.4. Conclusions 205 9.5. Bibliography 205 Conclusion 207 Martine HOSSAERT-MCKEY and Anne-Genevieve BAGNERES Glossary 213 List of Authors 217 Index 221