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Cardiovascular Diseases
From Molecular Pharmacology to Evidence–Based Therapeutics
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Main description:

Even though there has been improvement in treatment and significant reduction in mortality rate, cardiovascular disease remains one of the leading causes of death around the world. Drug therapy continues to rank high as a way to manage heart disease making cardiovascular pharmacology a key part of medical education and drug development research.



This book addresses the needs of these students and researchers by systematically integrating essentials, advances, and clinical correlations for cardiovascular drugs. The author, who has over two decades of experience teaching this topic, covers both the fundamentals and most recent advances in the pharmacology of cardiovascular drugs, as well as their integrated applications in the management of individual cardiovascular diseases. In addition, the text presents evidence–based pharmacotherapeutics in the management of common cardiovascular diseases and conditions that include dyslipidemias, hypertension, ischemic heart disease, heart failure, cardiac arrhythmias, and ischemic stroke.



Written in an accessible style and consistent format, the book covers both the fundamentals and advances in the pharmacology of cardiovascular drugs, as well as their integrated applications in the management of individual cardiovascular diseases.



    Blends basic and clinical sciences needed to effectively understand and treat cardiovascular diseases

    Facilitates understanding of drug action and mechanism by covering physiology / pathophysiology and pharmacology

    Includes guidelines and algorithms for pharmacotherapeutic management of cardiovascular diseases

    Uses case presentations and study questions to enhance understanding of the material

    Serves as a resource for pharmaceutical and medical students and researchers interested in cardiovascular issues


Back cover:

Even though there has been improvement in treatment and significant reduction in mortality rate, cardiovascular disease remains one of the leading causes of death around the world. Drug therapy continues to rank high as a way to manage heart disease making cardiovascular pharmacology a key part of medical education and drug development research.



This book addresses the needs of these students and researchers by systematically integrating essentials, advances, and clinical correlations for cardiovascular drugs. The author, who has over two decades of experience teaching this topic, covers both the fundamentals and most recent advances in the pharmacology of cardiovascular drugs, as well as their integrated applications in the management of individual cardiovascular diseases. In addition, the text presents evidence–based pharmacotherapeutics in the management of common cardiovascular diseases and conditions that include dyslipidemias, hypertension, ischemic heart disease, heart failure, cardiac arrhythmias, and ischemic stroke.



Written in an accessible style and consistent format, the book covers both the fundamentals and advances in the pharmacology of cardiovascular drugs, as well as their integrated applications in the management of individual cardiovascular diseases.



    Blends basic and clinical sciences needed to effectively understand and treat cardiovascular diseases

    Facilitates understanding of drug action and mechanism by covering physiology / pathophysiology and pharmacology

    Includes guidelines and algorithms for pharmacotherapeutic management of cardiovascular diseases

    Uses case presentations and study questions to enhance understanding of the material

    Serves as a resource for pharmaceutical and medical students and researchers interested in cardiovascular issues


Contents:

PREFACE xix


LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS xxii


UNIT I GENERAL INTRODUCTION 1


1 Introduction to Cardiovascular Diseases 3


1.1 Overview 3


1.2 Definition of Cardiovascular Diseases 3


1.3 Classification of Cardiovascular Diseases 3


1.4 Prevalence, Incidence, and Trend of Cardiovascular Diseases 5


1.5 Risk Factors of Cardiovascular Diseases 9


1.6 Prevention and Control of Cardiovascular Diseases 10


1.7 Cardiovascular Risk Prediction and Evidence ]Based Treatments 15


1.8 Summary of Chapter Key Points 18


1.9 Self–Assessment Questions 18


References 19


2 Introduction to Principles of Pharmacology 21


2.1 Overview 21


2.2 Definitions and History 21


2.3 Pharmacological Paradigm: the Central Dogma in Pharmacology 24


2.4 Principles of Drug Discovery, Development, and Regulation 31


2.5 Pharmacology Subspecialties 32


2.6 Introduction to Cardiovascular Pharmacology 32


2.7 Summary of Chapter Key Points 38


2.8 Self ]Assessment Questions 39


References 40


UNIT II DYSLIPIDEMIAS 43


3 Overview of Dyslipidemias and Drug Therapy 45


3.1 Introduction 45


3.2 Lipoprotein Metabolism 45


3.3 Dyslipidemias and Genetic Lipoprotein Disorders 51


3.4 Mechanistically Based Drug Therapy of Dyslipidemias 51


3.5 Summary of Chapter Key Points 53


3.6 Self ]Assessment Questions 54


References 54


4 Drugs for Dyslipidemias 56


4.1 Overview 56


4.2 Statins 56


4.3 Bile Acid Sequestrants 64


4.4 Cholesterol Absorption Inhibitors 69


4.5 Fibrates 72


4.6 Niacin 75


4.7 New Drugs for HoFH 80


4.8 Phytosterols and Phytostanols 83


4.9 Omega ]3 Fatty Acids 86


4.10 Emerging Therapeutic Modalities for Dyslipidemias 88


4.11 Summary of Chapter Key Points 93


4.12 Self–Assessment Questions 93


References 95


5 Management of Dyslipidemias: Principles and Guidelines 99


5.1 Overview 99


5.2 General Principles of the Management of Dyslipidemias 99


5.3 Current Evidence ]Based Guidelines on the Management of Dyslipidemias 102


5.4 Summary of Chapter Key Points 113


5.5 Self ]Assessment Questions 113


References 114


UNIT III HYPERTENSION AND MULTITASKING CARDIOVASCULAR DRUGS 117


6 Overview of Hypertension and Drug Therapy 119


6.1 Introduction 119


6.2 Definitions, Classifications, and Epidemiology of Hypertension 119


6.3 Pathophysiology of Hypertension 121


6.4 Mechanistically Based Drug Therapy of Hypertension: An Overview 123


6.5 Summary of Chapter Key Points 123


6.6 Self ]Assessment Questions 125


References 125


7 Diuretics 127


7.1 Overview 127


7.2 Volume Regulation and Drug Targeting 127


7.3 Thiazide and Thiazide ]Type Diuretics 129


7.4 Loop Diuretics 134


7.5 Potassium ]Sparing Diuretics 138


7.6 Other Diuretics 142


7.7 Summary of Chapter Key Points 143


7.8 Self ]Assessment Questions 143


References 144


8 Sympatholytics 147


8.1 Overview 147


8.2 Sympathetic Nervous System and Drug Targeting 147


8.3 ]Adrenergic Receptor Antagonists 150


8.4 ]Adrenergic Receptor Antagonists 150


8.5 Centrally Acting Sympatholytics 157


8.6 Summary of Chapter Key Points 158


8.7 Self ]Assessment Questions 159


References 159


9 Inhibitors of the Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone System 161


9.1 Overview 161


9.2 The RAAS and Drug Targeting 161


9.3 Direct Renin Inhibitors 162


9.4 ACE Inhibitors 166


9.5 ARBs 174


9.6 Comparative Pharmacology of Direct Renin Inhibitors, ACE Inhibitors, and ARBs 179


9.7 Summary of Chapter Key Points 181


9.8 Self–Assessment Questions 181


References 182


10 Calcium Channel Blockers 185


10.1 Overview 185


10.2 Calcium Channels and Drug Targeting 185


10.3 L–TYPE CCBs 186


10.4 Summary of Chapter Key Points 192


10.5 Self–Assessment Questions 192


References 193


11 Nitrates and Other Vasodilators 194


11.1 Overview 194


11.2 Drug Class and Drug Targeting 194


11.3 Organic Nitrates and Sodium Nitroprusside (Nitric Oxide ]Releasing Vasodilators) 196


11.4 ET Receptor Antagonists 201


11.5 Phosphodiesterase 5 Inhibitors 204


11.6 sGC Stimulators 207


11.7 K+ATP Channel Openers 209


11.8 Other Vasodilators 210


11.9 Summary of Chapter Key Points 212


11.10 Self–Assessment Questions 212


References 213


12 Management of Hypertension: Principles and Guidelines 215


12.1 Overview 215


12.2 Introduction to Current Guidelines for the Management of Systemic Hypertension 215


12.3 Key Recommendations of Major Guidelines for the Management of Systemic Hypertension 217


12.4 Lifestyle Modifications for the Management of Systemic Hypertension 221


12.5 Drug Therapy of Systemic Hypertension 223


12.6 Drug Therapy of Prehypertension 234


12.7 Drug Therapy of Pulmonary Hypertension 235


12.8 Summary of Chapter Key Points 237


12.9 Self–Assessment Questions 238


References 239


UNIT IV ISCHEMIC HEART DISEASE: STABLE ISCHEMIC HEART DISEASE 243


13 Overview of Ischemic Heart Disease, Stable Angina, and Drug Therapy 245


13.1 Introduction 245


13.2 Classification, Epidemiology, and Pathophysiology 245


13.3 Stable Angina and Drug Targeting 250


13.4 Summary of Chapter Key Points 252


13.5 Self–Assessment Questions 252


References 253


14 Drugs for Stable Angina 254


14.1 Overview 254


14.2 –Blockers for Treating Stable Angina 254


14.3 CCBs for Treating Stable Angina 255


14.4 Organic Nitrate for Treating Stable Angina 255


14.5 New Antianginal Drugs: Ranolazine 255


14.6 Other New and Emerging Drugs 258


14.7 Summary of Chapter Key Points 259


14.8 Self–Assessment Questions 259


References 260


15 Management of Stable Angina/Stable Ischemic Heart Disease: Principles and Guidelines 262


15.1 Overview 262


15.2 Introduction to Current Guidelines on Management of Stable Angina/SIHD 262


15.3 General Principles of Management of Stable Angina/SIHD 265


15.4 Current Guideline Recommendations on Stable Angina/SIHD Management 266


15.5 Management of Special Types of Stable Angina 271


15.6 Summary of Chapter Key Points 273


15.7 Self–Assessment Questions 273


References 273


UNIT V ISCHEMIC HEART DISEASE: ACUTE CORONARY SYNDROMES 275


16 Overview of Acute Coronary Syndromes and Drug Therapy 277


16.1 Introduction 277


16.2 Definitions and General Considerations 277


16.3 Pathophysiology and Drug Targeting 278


16.4 Summary of Chapter Key Points 280


16.5 Self–Assessment Questions 281


References 281


17 Anticoagulants, Platelet Inhibitors, and Thrombolytic Agents 283


17.1 Overview 283


17.2 Hemostasis 283


17.3 Anticoagulants 285


17.4 Platelet Inhibitors 295


17.5 Thrombolytic Agents 304


17.6 Summary of Chapter Key Points 307


17.7 Self–Assessment Questions 307


References 308


18 Management of Unstable Angina and Non–ST–Elevation Myocardial Infarction: Principles and Guidelines 310


18.1 Overview 310


18.2 Introduction to Evidence–Based Guidelines 310


18.3 General Principles of Management of UA/NSTEMI 311


18.4 Guideline–Based Recommendations on the Management of UA/NSTEMI 311


18.5 Summary of Chapter Key Points 324


18.6 Self–Assessment Questions 325


References 325


19 Management of ST–Elevation Myocardial Infarction: Principles and Guidelines 327


19.1 Overview 327


19.2 Definition and Epidemiology 327


19.3 Introduction to Recent Guidelines on the Management of STEMI 328


19.4 Principles and Guideline Recommendations for the Management of STEMI 329


19.5 Summary of Chapter Key Points 339


19.6 Self–Assessment Questions 340


References 340


UNIT VI HEART FAILURE 343


20 Overview of Heart Failure and Drug Therapy 345


20.1 Introduction 345


20.2 Definition, Classification, and Epidemiology 345


20.3 Pathophysiology and Drug Targeting 348


20.4 Summary of Chapter Key Points 349


20.5 Self–Assessment Questions 350


References 350


21 Drugs for Heart Failure 352


21.1 Overview 352


21.2 Diuretics for Heart Failure 352


21.3 –Blockers for HF 352


21.4 Inhibitors of the RAAS for HF 353


21.5 Vasodilators for HF 354


21.6 Positive Inotropic Agents for HF 354


21.7 Emerging Drugs for HF 359


21.8 Summary of Chapter Key Points 360


21.9 Self–Assessment Questions 360


References 361


22 Management of Heart Failure: Principles and Guidelines 364


22.1 Overview 364


22.2 Management of Hf–REF 364


22.3 Management of HF–PEF 367


22.4 Management of Acute Heart Failure Syndromes 368


22.5 Summary of Chapter Key Points 372


22.6 Self–Assessment Questions 373


References 374


UNIT Vii CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS 375


23 Overview of Cardiac Arrhythmias and Drug Therapy 377


23.1 Introduction 377


23.2 Definition, Classification, and Epidemiology 377


23.3 Pathophysiology and Drug Targeting 380


23.4 Summary of Chapter Key Points 388


23.5 Self–Assessment Questions 389


References 390


24 Drugs for Cardiac Arrhythmias 391


24.1 Overview 391


24.2 Classification of Antiarrhythmic Drugs 391


24.3 Class I Antiarrhythmic Drugs 392


24.4 Class II Antiarrhythmic Drugs 398


24.5 Class III Antiarrhythmic Drugs 399


24.6 Class IV Antiarrhythmic Drugs 404


24.7 Other Antiarrhythmic Drugs 406


24.8 Summary of Chapter Key Points 408


24.9 Self–Assessment Questions 409


References 410


25 Management of Cardiac Arrhythmias: Principles and Guidelines 411


25.1 Overview 411


25.2 General Principles of Management 411


25.3 Management of Supraventricular Arrhythmias 411


25.4 Management of Ventricular Arrhythmias 414


25.5 Summary of Chapter Key Points 421


25.6 Self–Assessment Questions 423


References 424


UNIT Viii ISCHEMIC STROKE 427


26 Overview of Ischemic Stroke and Drug Therapy 429


26.1 Introduction 429


26.2 Definition and Classification of Cerebrovascular Diseases 429


26.3 Definition and Classification of Stroke 429


26.4 Epidemiology of Stroke 430


26.5 Risk Factors of Stroke 432


26.6 Pathophysiology of Ischemic Stroke and Drug Targeting 432


26.7 Summary of Chapter Key Points 434


26.8 Self ]Assessment Questions 434


References 435


27 Drugs for Ischemic Stroke 436


27.1 Overview 436


27.2 Drugs for Primary Prevention of Ischemic Stroke 436


27.3 Drugs for Early Treatment of Acute Ischemic Stroke 438


27.4 Drugs for Neuroprotection 439


27.5 Drugs for Secondary Prevention of Ischemic Stroke 441


27.6 Stem Cell Therapy for Neurorepair 442


27.7 Summary of Chapter Key Points 442


27.8 Self–Assessment Questions 443


References 444


28 Management of Ischemic Stroke: Principles and Guidelines 447


28.1 Overview 447


28.2 Introduction to Stroke Systems of Care 447


28.3 Current AHA/ASA Guidelines on Early Management of Acute Ischemic Stroke 449


28.4 Summary of Chapter Key Points 450


28.5 Self–Assessment Questions 455


References 456


INDEX 457


PRODUCT DETAILS

ISBN-13: 9781118889947
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons Ltd (Wiley–Blackwell)
Publication date: March, 2015
Pages: 320
Dimensions: 150.00 x 282.00 x 25.68

Subcategories: Cardiovascular Medicine, Pharmacology

MEET THE AUTHOR

Y. Robert Li is Professor and Founding Chair of the Department of Pharmacology and Assistant Dean for Biomedical Research at Campbell University and holds Adjunct Professor appointments at Virginia Tech–Wake Forest University School of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences, Virginia–Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, and University of North Carolina at Greensboro. He is an author of over 110 peer–reviewed publications, three monographs, and numerous book chapters and serves on the editorial boards of several leading journals. Dr. Li has over 20 years of teaching experience in the areas of biomedical sciences, free radical biology, toxicology, pharmacology, and therapeutics.