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Applications of Microdialysis in Pharmaceutical Science
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Main description:

Discover new and emerging applications for microdialysis in drugevaluation


Microdialysis is a highly valuable sampling tool that can beused in vivo to measure free, unbound analyte concentrationslocated in interstitial and extracellular spaces. This bookexplores the full range of clinical applications for microdialysis,focusing on its use in different organ and tissue systems forpharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies. Readers gain a fullunderstanding of the underlying science of microdialysis, currenttechniques and practices, as well as its many applications inpharmaceutical research.


Applications of Microdialysis in Pharmaceutical Science startswith an introduction to basic principles and then covers analyticalconsiderations, pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic studies,clinical aspects, and special applications. Topics include:



  • Role of microdialysis in drug development, including crucialsampling considerations and applications for nervous systemdiseases


  • Continuous measurement of glucose concentrations indiabetics


  • Applications for clinical evaluation and basic research on organsystems, including monitoring exogenous and endogenous compounds inthe lungs


  • Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic evaluation of anticancerdrugs


  • Comparison of microdialysis with imaging approaches to evaluatein vivo drug distribution


  • Special applications of microdialysis in studies of cell cultureassays, drug–drug interactions, and environmental monitoring



Throughout the book, readers will find simple models thatclarify complex concepts and easy–to–follow examples that guidethem through key applications in pharmaceutical research. In short,this book enables pharmaceutical researchers to take full advantageof microdialysis techniques for the preclinical and clinicalevaluation of drugs and much more.


Back cover:

Discover new and emerging applications for microdialysis in drugevaluation


Microdialysis is a highly valuable sampling tool that can beused in vivo to measure free, unbound analyte concentrationslocated in interstitial and extracellular spaces. This bookexplores the full range of clinical applications for microdialysis,focusing on its use in different organ and tissue systems forpharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies. Readers gain a fullunderstanding of the underlying science of microdialysis, currenttechniques and practices, as well as its many applications inpharmaceutical research.


Applications of Microdialysis in Pharmaceutical Science startswith an introduction to basic principles and then covers analyticalconsiderations, pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic studies,clinical aspects, and special applications. Topics include:



  • Role of microdialysis in drug development, including crucialsampling considerations and applications for nervous systemdiseases


  • Continuous measurement of glucose concentrations indiabetics


  • Applications for clinical evaluation and basic research on organsystems, including monitoring exogenous and endogenous compounds inthe lungs


  • Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic evaluation of anticancerdrugs


  • Comparison of microdialysis with imaging approaches to evaluatein vivo drug distribution


  • Special applications of microdialysis in studies of cell cultureassays, drug–drug interactions, and environmental monitoring



Throughout the book, readers will find simple models thatclarify complex concepts and easy–to–follow examples that guidethem through key applications in pharmaceutical research. In short,this book enables pharmaceutical researchers to take full advantageof microdialysis techniques for the preclinical and clinicalevaluation of drugs and much more.


Contents:

Contributors xi

1. Introduction to Applications of Microdialysis inPharmaceutical Science 1
Tung–Hu Tsai


2. Microdialysis in Drug Discovery 7
Christian Höcht


1. Introduction 7


2. Phases of Drug Development 8


3. Role of Biomarkers in Drug Development 11


4. Role of Pharmacokinetic–Pharmacodynamic Modeling in DrugDevelopment 12


5. Role of Microdialysis in Drug Development 15


6. Microdialysis Sampling in the Drug Development of SpecificTherapeutic Groups 20


7. Regulatory Aspects of Microdialysis Sampling in DrugDevelopment 29


8. Conclusions 30


3. Analytical Considerations for Microdialysis Sampling39
Pradyot Nandi, Courtney D. Kuhnline, and Susan M.Lunte


1. Introduction 39


2. Analytical Methodologies 49


3. Conclusions 75


4. Monitoring Dopamine in the Mesocorticolimbic andNigrostriatal Systems by Microdialysis: Relevance for MoodDisorders and Parkinson s Disease 93
Giuseppe Di Giovanni, Massimo Peirucci, and Vincenzo DiMatteo


1. Introduction 93


2. Pathophysiology of Serotonin–Dopamine Interaction:Implication for Mood Disorders 94


3. Dopamine Depletion in the Nigrostratal System:Parkinson s Disease 109


4. Conclusions 120


5. Monitoring Neutrotransmitter Amino Acids by Microdialysis:Pharmacodynamic Applications 151
Sandrine Parrot, Bernard Renaud, Luc Zimmer, and LucDenoroy


1. Introduction 151


2. Monitoring Neurotransmitter Amino Acids by Microdialysis152


3. Basic Research on Receptors 162


4. Psychostimulants and Addictive Drugs 168


5. Analgesia 177


6. Ischemia–Anoxia 182


7. Conclusions and Perspectives 188


6. Microdialysis as a Tool to Unravel NeurobiologicalMechanisms of Seizures and Antiepileptic Drug Action 207
Ilse Smolders, Ralph Clickers, and Yvette Michotte


1. Introduction 207


2. Microdialysis to Characterize Seizure–Related Neurobiologicaland Metabolic Changes in Animal Models and in Humans 209


3. Microdialysis as a Chemoconvulsant Delivery Tool in AnimalSeizure Models 217


4. Microdialysis Used to Elucidate Mechanisms of ElectricalBrain Stimulation and Neuronal Circuits Involved in Seizures218


5. Microdialysis Used to Unravel the Mechanisms of Action ofEstablished Antiepileptic Drugs and New Therapeutic Strategies219


6. Microdialysis Studies in the Search for Mechanisms of AdverseEffects of Clinically Used Drugs, Drugs of Abuse, and Toxins224


7. Combining Microdialysis with Other ComplementaryNeurotechniques to Unravel Mechanisms of Seizures and Epilepsy226


8. The Advantage of Microdialysis Used to Sample BiophaseAntiepileptic Drug Levels and to Monitor Neurotransmitters asMarkers for Anticonvulsant Activity 228


9. Microdialysis Used to Study Relationships Between Epilepsyand Its Comorbidities 236


7. Microdialysis in Lung Tissue: Monitoring of Exogenous andEndogenous Compounds 255
Thomas Feurstein and Markus Zeitlinger


1. Introduction 255


2. Special Aspects Associated with Lung Microdialysis Comparedto Microdialysis in Other Tissues 252


3. Insertion of Microdialysis Probes into Lung Tissue 256


4. Insertion of Microdialysis Probes into the Bronchial System257


5. Types of Probes 258


6. Endogenous Compounds 258


7. Exogenous Drugs 259


8. Animal Data 260


9. Clinical Data 262


10. Comparison of Pharmacokinetic Data in Lung Obtained byMicrodialysis and Other Techniques 264


11. Predictability of Lung Concentrations by Measurements onOther Tissues 265


8. Microdialysis in the Hepatobility System: Monitoring DrugMetabolism, Hepatebiliary Excretion, and Enterohepatic Circulation275
Yu–Tse Wu and Tung–Hu Tsia


1. Introduction 275


2. Experimental Considerations of Pharmacokinetic Studies279


3. Pharmacokinetic and Hepatobiliary Excretion Studies EmprovingMicrodialysis 284


4. Conclusions 287


9. Microdialysis Used to Measure the Metabolism of Glucose,Lactate, and Glycerol 295
Greg Nowak


1.Introduction 295


2. Glucose 299


3. Lactate 301


4. Lactate/Pyruvate Ratio 303


5. Glycerol 303


10. Clinical Microdialysis in Skin and Soft Tissues 313
Martina Sahre, Runa Naik, and Hartmut Derendorf


1. Introduction 313


2. Tissue Bioavailability 314


3. PK–PD Indices 323


4. Topical Bioequivalence 329


5. Endogenous Compounds 330


6. Conclusion 331


11. Microdialysis on Adipose Tissue: Monitoring TissueMetabolism and Blood Flow in Humans 335
Gijs H. Goossens, Wim H. Saris, and Ellen E. Black


1. Introduction 335


2. Principles and Practical Considerations in the Use ofMicrodialysis on Adipose Tissue 336


3. Use of Microdialysis on Adipose Tissue in Humans 342


4. Summary and Conclusions 353


12. Microdialysis as a Monitoring System for Human Diabetes359
Anna Ciechanowska, Jan M. Wojcick, IwunaMaruniak–Chudek,Piotr Ladyzynski, and Janusz Kraybien


1. Introduction 359


2. Monitoring Acute Complications of Diabetes 362


13. Microdialysis Use in Tumors Drug Disposition and TumorResponse 403
Quigyu Zhou and James M. Gallo


1. Introduction 403


2. Microdialysis as a Sampling Technique in Oncology 404


3. Experimental Considerations 408


4. Examples of the Use of Microdualysis to Characterize DrugDisposition in Tumor 414


5. Use of Microdialysis in the Evaluation of Tumor Response toTherapy 423


6. Conclusions and Future Perspectives 423


14. Microdialysis Versus Imaging Techniques for In Vivo DrugDistribution Measurements 431
Martin Brunner


1. Introduction 431


2. Microdialysis 432


3. Imaging Techniques 434


4. Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Magnetic ResonanceSpectroscopy 434


5. Positron–Emission Tomography 435


6. Combination of Microdialysis and Imaging Techniques 436


7. Summary and Conclusions 438


15. In Vitro Applications of Microdialysis 445
Wen–Chuan Lee and Tung–Hu Tsai


1. Introduction 445


2. Microdialysis Used in Culture Systems 446


3. Microdialysis Used in Enzyme Kinetics 453


4. Microdialysis Used in Protein Binding 455


5. Conclusions 456


16. Microdialysis in Drug–Drug Interaction 465
Mitsuhito Wada, Rie Ikeda, and Kenichiro Nakashima


1. Introduction 465


2. Pharmacokinetic Drug–Drug Interaction 472


3. Pharmacodynamic Drug–Drug Interaction 487


4. Conclusions 501


17. Microdialysis in Environmental Monitoring 509
Manuel Miró and Wolfgang Frenzel


1. Introduction 509


2. In Vivo and In Situ Sampling: Similarities and Differences510


3. Critical Parameters Influencing Relative Recoveries 513


4. Detection Techniques 516


5. Calibration Methods 519


6. Environmental Applications of Microdialysis 520


7. Conclusions and Future Trends 524


Index 531


PRODUCT DETAILS

ISBN-13: 9781118011287
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons Ltd (Wiley–Blackwell)
Publication date: September, 2011
Pages: 584
Dimensions: 157.00 x 242.00 x 35.38

Subcategories: Diseases and Disorders, Pharmacology

MEET THE AUTHOR

Tung–Hu Tsai, PhD, is a Professor at the Institute of Traditional Medicine, National Yang–Ming University, Taiwan. He has published more than 200 papers in the field of pharmaceutical analysis, herbal medicine, and pharmacokinetics. Dr. Tsai′s current research focuses on the mechanisms of pharmacokinetic pathways, emphasizing hepatobiliary excretion and barrier transportation.