Despite the often difficult and time-consuming effort of performing experiments with fast (14 MeV) neutrons, these neutrons can offer special insight into nucleus and other materials because of the absence of charge. 14 MeV Neutrons: Physics and Applications explores fast neutrons in basic science and applications to problems in medicine, the environment, and security.
Drawing on his more than 50 years of experience working with 14 MeV neutrons, the author focuses on: * Sources of 14 MeV neutrons, including laboratory size accelerators, small and sealed tube generators, well logging sealed tube accelerators, neutron generators with detection of associated alpha particles, plasma devices, high flux sources, and laser-generated neutron sources * Nuclear reactions with 14 MeV neutrons, including measurements of energy spectra, angular distributions, and deductions of reaction mechanism * Nuclear reactions with three particles in the final state induced by neutrons and the identification of effects of final state interaction, quasi-free scattering, and charge-dependence of nuclear forces * Charged particle and neutron detection methods, particularly position-sensitive detectors * Industrial applications of nuclear analytical methods, especially in the metallurgy and coal industries * Quality assurance and quality control measures for nuclear analytical methods * Nuclear and atomic physics-based technology for combating illicit trafficking and terrorism * Medical applications, including radiography, radiotherapy, in vivo neutron activation analysis, boron neutron therapy, collimated neutron beams, and dosimetry This book reflects the exciting developments in both fundamental nuclear physics and the application of fast neutrons to many practical problems.
The book shows how 14 MeV neutrons are used in materials detection and analysis to effectively inspect large volumes in complex environments.
Introduction History: From Discovery to Present MeV Neutrons and Nuclear Weapons Nuclear Physics Probe Modern Applications References Nuclear Reaction d + t --> alpha + n Properties of 3H(d,n)4He Nuclear Reaction D-T Fusion Reaction: Power Production Associated Alpha Particle-Tagged Neutron Beams References Sources of 14 MeV Neutrons Introduction Laboratory Size Accelerators Small and Sealed-Tube Neutron Generators Well Logging Sealed-Tube Accelerators Neutron Generators with the Detection of Associated Alpha Particles Plasma Devices High Flux Sources Laser-Generated Nanosecond Pulsed Neutron Sources Calibrations of 14 MeV Neutron Generators New Developments Safety and Regulations References Detectors Charged Particle Detection Scintillation Detectors Neutron Detection, Neutron-Gamma Separation Personal X-Ray, Gamma, and Neutron Detectors References Nuclear Reactions Induced by 14 MeV Neutrons Introduction Experimental Setup, Coincidence Measurements Nuclear Reactions on Light Nuclei Direct Reactions, Compound Nucleus Formation Activation Analysis: (n,p), (n,np), (n,alpha), (n,nalpha), (n,n'y), (n,2n), (n,t), (n,3He) Reactions Fission Induced by 14 MeV Neutrons Neutron-Induced SEU References Fast Neutron Activation Analysis: An Analytical Method FNAA: Fundamentals and Applications QA/QC Measures, Reference Materials Process Control of Industrial Production Processes Threat Material Detection with PFNA Safety Issues Fusion with Other Methods References Applications of Tagged Neutron Beams Use of Tagged Neutron Beams Homeland Security Applications Detection of Threat Materials (Explosives, Drugs, and Dangerous Chemicals) Use of Tagged Neutron Beam for Sea Container Inspection, Transport Infrastructure Control Neutron Generators in Extreme Conditions More Objects to Be Inspected and Inspection Requirements References Nuclear Reactions Logging Nuclear Well Logging Logging with Pulsed Neutron Beam Carbon-Oxygen Log Small-Scale Variations in C/O Ratios References Medical Applications of 14 MeV Neutrons Introduction Biological and Medical Applications In Vivo Neutron Activation Analysis Neutron Radiography Fast Neutron Radiotherapy Collimated Neutron Beams Quality Assurance Programs for Diagnostic Facilities Production of Radioisotopes Using Fast Neutrons Dosimetry References